BazEkon - Biblioteka Główna Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Krakowie

BazEkon home page

Meny główne

Evans M.D.R. (University of Nevada), Kelley Jonathan (International Survey Center; University of Nevada)
Education Legitimates Income Inequality: Normative Beliefs in Early Post-Communist and Market-oriented Nations
Polish Sociological Review, 2017, nr 4, s. 441-463, rys., tab., bibliogr. 101 poz.
Słowa kluczowe
Nierówności dochodowe, Edukacja, Wartości i normy etyczne
Income inequalities, Education, Value and ethical norms
Using data from large, representative national samples in in Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Australia, Finland, and the Netherlands, we examine moral norms about just rewards for education. Comparing these norms in East Central Europe shortly after Communism-where the dominant ideology was egalitarian, schooling free, rewards to education modest, and alternative investments absent-and in market-oriented societies where the opposite held, provides insight into the influence of institutional arrangements on moral norms. We find that the publics in all these countries favor large rewards for education (which legitimates substantial income inequality), showing that these moral norms are resilient to institutional arrangements. These results align with Aristotle's claim that people believe job performance merits reward because it makes valuable contributions. They undermine alternative theories: credentialism, radical egalitarianism, and the hegemonic power of dominant political elites. These results also undermine economists' human capital arguments insofar as they are seen as a moral justification for income inequality. (original abstract)
Dostępne w
Biblioteka Główna Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Krakowie
Biblioteka Główna Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego w Katowicach
  1. Aristotle, c. 334-323 BC [1985]. Nicomachean Ethics. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing.
  2. Austen, S. 2002. An International Comparison of Attitudes to Inequality, International Journal of Social Economics 29: 218-37.
  3. Babones, S. J. 2008. Income Inequality and Population Health, Social Science & Medicine 66: 1614-1626.
  4. Becker, G. S. 1964. Human Capital. New York: National Bureau of Economic Research.
  5. Beckfield, J. 2004. Does Income Inequality Harm Health?, Journal of Health and Social Behavior 45: 231- 248.
  6. Beirne, J., and Campos, N. F. 2007. Educational Inputs and Outcomes before the Transition from Communism, Economics of Transition 15: 57-76.
  7. Berger, J., et al. 1972. Structural Aspects of Distributive Justice, in: J. Berger, M. Zelditch, and B. Anderson (eds.), Sociological Theories in Progress, Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin, pp. 119-146.
  8. Breznau, N. 2010. Economic Equality and Social Welfare, International Journal of Public Opinion Research 22(4): 458-84.
  9. Castillo, J. C. 2011. Legitimacy of Inequality in a Highly Unequal Context, Social Justice Research 24: 314- 340.
  10. Davis, K., and Moore, W. 1945. Some Principles of Stratification, American Sociological Review 10: 242-49.
  11. Della Torre, E., Pelagatti, M. M., and Solari, L. 2014. Internal and External Equity in Compensation Systems, Human Relations 2014: 1-32.
  12. Deutsch, M. 1975. Equity, Equality, and Need, Journal of Social Issues 31: 137-149.
  13. Dornstein, M. 1991. Conceptions of Fair Pay. New York, NY: Praeger.
  14. Dulebohn, J. H., and Werling, S. E. 2007. Compensation Research Past, Present, and Future, Human Resource Management Review 17: 191-207.
  15. Duru - Bellat, M., and Tenret, E. 2012. Who's for Meritocracy?, Comparative Education Review 56: 223-247.
  16. Evans, M. D. R., and Kelley, J. 1998. Why Is Education Rewarded?, Australian Social Monitor 1: 35-40.
  17. Evans, M. D. R., and Kelley, J. 2007. Population Size, Economic Development, and Attitudes Towards Inequality, Population Review 46(2): 1-21.
  18. Evans, M. D. R., and Kelley, J. 2017. Communism, Capitalism, and Images of Class, Cross-Cultural Research 51(4): 315-35.
  19. Evans, M. D. R., Kelley, J., and Kolosi, T. 1992. Images of Class, American Sociological Review 57:461- 482.
  20. Evans, M. D. R., Kelley, J., and Peoples, C. 2010. Justifications of Inequality, Social Science Quarterly 91: 1405-1431.
  21. Evans, M. D. R., Peoples, C. D., and Kelley, J. 2014. Using Secondary Survey Data to Study Community Sentiment, in: M. K. Miller et al. (eds.), Handbook of Community Sentiment. New York: Springer, pp. 69- 82.
  22. Evans, M. D. R., Kelley, J., Yang, J. 2016. Family Background and Education: China in Comparative Perspective, Comparative Sociology 15(1): 41-84.
  23. Fiske, A. 1991. The Structures of Social Life. New York: Free Press.
  24. Flanagan, R. J. 1998. Were Communists Good Human Capitalists? Labour Economics 5: 295-312.
  25. Ganzeboom, H. B. G., Treiman, D. J., Ultee, W. C. 1991. Comparative Intergenerational Stratification Research, Annual Review of Sociology 17: 277-30.
  26. Gerber, Th. P., and Hout, M. 1995. Educational Stratification in Russia During the Soviet Period, American Journal of Sociology 101(3): 611-60.
  27. Gijsberts, M. 2002. The Legitimation of Income Inequality in State-Socialist and Market Societies, Acta Sociologica 45(4): 269-85.
  28. Hadler, M. 2005. Why Do People Accept Different Income Ratios?, Acta Sociologica 48: 131-154.
  29. Halaby, Ch. N. 1986. Worker Attachment and Workplace Authority, American Sociological Review 51 (5): 634- 49.
  30. Halaby, C. N., and Weakliem, D. L. 1993. Ownership and Authority in the Earnings Function, American Sociological Review 58(1): 16-30.
  31. Haller, M., and Richter, R. 1994. Introduction: The Difficult Transition to Democracy, Market, and Civil Society in Eastern Europe, International Journal of Sociology 24(2-3): 3-8.
  32. Headey, B. 1991. Distributive Justice and Occupational Incomes, British Journal of Sociology 42: 581-596.
  33. Horvat, P., and Evans, G. 2011. Age, Inequality, and Reactions to Marketization in Post-Communist Central and Eastern Europe, European Sociological Review 27(6): 708-27.
  34. Hox, J. J. 1995. Applied Multilevel Analysis. Amsterdam: TT-Publikaties.
  35. Jasso, G. 1980. A New Theory of Distributive Justice, American Sociological Review 45: 3-32.
  36. Jasso, G. 1994. What Is Just?, Contemporary Sociology 23: 707-709.
  37. Kalleberg, A. L. 1988. Comparative Perspectives on Work Structures and Inequality, Annual Review of Sociology 14: 203-225.
  38. Kelley, J. 1990a. The Failure of a Paradigm, in: J. Clarke, S. Modgil, and C. Modgil (eds.), John Goldthorpe. Consensus and Controversy. London: Falmer, pp. 319-346.
  39. Kelley, J. 1990b. Interchange: Kelley Replies to Mueller, in: J. Clarke, S. Modgil, and C. Modgil (eds.), John Goldthorpe. Consensus and Controversy. London: Falmer, pp. 349-357.
  40. Kelley, J., and Evans, M. D. R. 1993. The Legitimation of Inequality, American Journal of Sociology 99: 75-125.
  41. Kelley, J., and Evans, M. D. R. 2009. Economic Development Reduces Tolerance for Inequality, in: M. Haller, R. Jowell, and T. Smith, (eds.), Charting the Globe. London: Routledge.
  42. Kelley, J., and Evans, M. D. R. 2017a. Societal Inequality and Individual Subjective Well-being: Results from 68 societies and over 200,000 individuals, 1981-2008, Social Science Research 62(1): 1-23.
  43. Kelley, J., and Evans, M. D. R. 2017b. The New Income Inequality and Wel-Being Paradigm, Social Science Research 62(1): 39-74.
  44. Kelley, J. and Sikora, J. 1999. Class and Attitudes to Private and Public Ownership in East and West, The Soviet and Post-Soviet Review 26(1): 13-42.
  45. Kelley, J. and Zagorski, K. 2005. Economic Change and the Legitimation of Inequality: The Transition From Socialism to the Free Market in Poland and Hungary, 1987-1994, Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 22: 321-366.
  46. Kelley, J., Zagorski, K., Evans, M. D. R., Ervasti, Heikki, Ganzeboom, Harry B.G., Gijsberts, Merove, Kangas, Olli, Robert, Peter, and Zlatkov, Tsocho. 1998. ISEA, Rounds 1 and 2. Code- book and MRDF. Point Marka, Australia: International Survey Center (
  47. Kluegel, J. R., Mason, D. S., and Wegener, B. 1995. Social Justice and Political Change. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
  48. Kocer, R. G. and Vande Werfhorst, H. G. 2012. Does Education Affect Opinions on Economic Inequality?, Acta Sociologica 55: 251-272.
  49. Kohn, M. L., Slomczynski, K. M., Janicka, K., Khmelko, V., Mach, B. W., Paniotto, V., Zaborowski, W., Gutierrez, R., and Heyman, C. 1997. Social Structure and Personality under Conditions of Radical Social Change, American Sociological Review 62: 614-638.
  50. Kołczyńska, M., and Merry, J. J. 2016. Preferred Levels of Income Inequality in a Period of Systemic Change, Polish Sociological Review 194(2): 171-189.
  51. Koralewicz-Zębik, J. 1984. The Perception of Inequality in Poland 1956-1980, Sociology 18(2): 225-238.
  52. Kraus, V., and Hodge, R. W. 1987. Economy, Polity and Occupational Prestige, Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 6: 113-139.
  53. Kunovich, S., and Slomczynski, K. M. 2007. Systems of Distribution and a Sense of Equity, European Sociological Review 23: 649-663.
  54. Machonin, P., and Tucek, M. 1994. A Historical Comparison of Social Structures in the Czech Republic in the Years 1984 and 1993, Czech Sociological Review 2: 149-172.
  55. Marks, G. N. 2009. Modernization theory and changes over time in the reproduction of socioeconomic inequalities, Social Forces 88(2): 917-944.
  56. Marks, G. N. 2010. Meritocracy, Modernization and Students' Occupational Expectations, Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 28: 275-289.
  57. Marks, G. N. 2013. Education, Social Background and Cognitive Ability. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  58. Marshall, G., Swift, A., Routh, D., and Burgoyne, C. 1999. What is and what ought to be, European Sociological Review 15: 349-367.
  59. Mateju, P., and Lim, N. 1995. Who Has Gotten Ahead After the Fall of Communism?, Czech Sociological Review 3: 117-136.
  60. Mateju, P. and Rehakova, B. 1996. Education as a Strategy for Life Success in the Postcommunist Transformation, Comparative Education Review 40(2): 158-176.
  61. Mateju, P., and Vlachova, K. 1998. Values and Electoral Decisions in the Czech Republic, Communist and Postcommunist Studies 31(3): 249-269.
  62. Milkovich, G., Newman, J., and Gerhart, B. 2013. Compensation. 11th edition. New York, NY: McGraw- Hill.
  63. Mincer, J. 1958. Investment in Human Capital and Personal Income Distribution, Journal of Political Economy 66: 281-302.
  64. Moore, D. 1991. Entitlement and Justice Evaluations, Social Psychology Quarterly 54: 208-23.
  65. Murphy, K. M., and Welch, F. 1994. Industrial Change and the Rising Importance of Skill, in: S. Danziger and P. Gottschalk (eds.), Uneven Tides. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, pp. 101-132.
  66. Nielsen, F. 2006. Achievement and Ascription in Educational Attainment, Social Forces 85(1): 193-216.
  67. Oesch, D. 2013. Occupational Change in Europe. Oxford: OUP.
  68. Parsons, T. 1970. Equality and Inequality in Modern Society, in: E. O. Laumann (ed.), Social Stratification. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, pp. 3-72.
  69. Peoples, C. D. 2011. Consistency in the Midst of Change: Class and Value Stability in Poland, 1988-2003, Comparative Sociology 10(1): 126-44.
  70. Piketty, T. 2014. Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Boston: Harvard University Press.
  71. Psacharopoulos, G. 1973. Returns to Education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
  72. Psacharopoulos, G., and Patrinos, H. A. 2004. Returns to Investment in Education, Education Economics 12: 111-134.
  73. Rawls, John. 1971. A Theory of Justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  74. Reeskens, T., and van Oorschot, W. 2013. Equity, Equality, or Need?, Journal of European Public Policy 20: 1174-1195.
  75. Reynolds, J., and Xian, H. 2014. Perceptions of Meritocracy in the Land of Opportunity, Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 36: 121-137.
  76. Sarapata, A. 1963. Iustum Pretium, Polish Sociological Bulletin 1: 41-56.
  77. Schultz, T. W. 1980. Nobel Lecture: The Economics of Being Poor, Journal of Political Economy 88: 639-51.
  78. Sen, A. 1973. On Economic Inequality. Oxford: Clarendon.
  79. Shamon, H., and Duelmer, H. 2014. Raising the Question on 'Who Should Get What?' again, Social Justice Research 27: 340-368.
  80. Shepelak, N. J. and Alwin, D. F. 1986. Beliefs About Inequality and Perceptions of Distributive Justice, American Sociological Review 51: 30-46.
  81. Sikora, J. 2005. Perceptions of Economic Efficiency of Government versus Private Enterprises, and Attitudes to Government Ownership in the Economy, Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 23: 221-214.
  82. Sikora, J., and Kelley, J. 1999. Attitudes to Private and Public Ownership in East and West, The Soviet and Post-Soviet Review 26: 13-42.
  83. Silova, I., and Eklof, B. 2013. Education in Eastern and Central Europe, in: R. F. Amove, et al. (eds.), Comparative Education. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, pp. 379-402.
  84. Simkus, A., and Robert, P. 1995. Attitudes toward Inequality in Hungary, International Journal of Sociology 25(4): 85-102.
  85. Słomczyński, K. M., and Wilk, K. M. 2002. Who Still Likes Socialism and Why?, International Journal of Sociology 32(3): 64-78.
  86. Słomczyński, K. M., Białecki, I., Domański, H., Janicka, K., Mach, B. W., Sawiński, Z., Sikorska, J., Zaborowski, W. 2008. Social Structure in Poland: POLPAN 1988. GESIS Data Archive, Cologne. ZA4670 Data file Version 1.0.0, doi: 10.4232/1.4670. See also
  87. Smith, M. L. and Mateju, P. 2012. Two Decades of Value Change: The Crystallization of Meritocratic and Egalitarian Beliefs in the Czech Republic, Social Justice Research 25(4): 421-39.
  88. Svallfors, S. 1993. Dimensions of Inequality, European Sociological Review 9: 267-287.
  89. Treiman, D. J. 1970. Industrialization and Social Stratification, in: E. O. Laumann (ed.), Social Stratification. Indianapolis: Bobbs Merrill, pp. 207-234.
  90. vande Werfhorst, H. G. 2011. Skills: Positional Good or Social Structure?, Journal of Education and Work 24: 521-548.
  91. Verwiebe, R., and Wegener, Berndt. 2000. Social Inequality and the Perceived Income Justice Gap, Social Justice Research 13(1): 123-49.
  92. Verba, S., and Orren, G. R. 1985. Equality in America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  93. Verhoeven, W.-J., Jansen, W., and Dessens, J. 2005. Income Attainment During Transformation Processes, European Sociological Review 21: 201-226.
  94. Walster, E., Berscheid, E., and Walster, G. W. 1973. New Directions in Equity Research, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 25(2): 151-176.
  95. Wegener, B., and Liebig, S. 1995. Dominant Ideologies and the Variation of Distributive Justice Norms, in: D. S. Mason. J. R. Kluegel, B. Wegener (eds.), Social Justice and Political Change. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter, pp. 239-62.
  96. Wilkinson, R. G., and Pickett, K. E. 2009. Income Inequality and Social Dysfunction, Annual Review of Sociology 35: 493-511.
  97. Zagórski, K. 1994. Hope Factor, Inequality, and Legitimacy of Systemic Transformations, Communist and Post-Communist Studies 27: 357-79.
  98. Zagórski, K., and Domański, H. 1996. Individual and Industrial Determinants of Earnings in Free Market and Centrally Planned Economy, Polish Sociological Review.
  99. Zagórski, K., Evans, M. D. R., Kelley, J., and Piotrowska, K. 2014. Does National Income Inequality Affect Individuals' Quality of Life in Europe?, Social Indicators Research 117: 1089-1110.
  100. Zagórski, K., and Kolarska-Bobińska, L. 1996. Poland: International Survey of Economic Attitudes, 1994. Codebook and Machine-Readable Data File. Warszawa: Institute of Political Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences.
  101. Zagórski, K., and Kolarska-Bobińska, L. 1998. Poland: International Survey of Economic Attitudes, 1997. Codebook and Machine-Readable Data File. Warszawa: Institute of Political Studies, Polish Academy of Sciences.
Cytowane przez
Udostępnij na Facebooku Udostępnij na Twitterze Udostępnij na Google+ Udostępnij na Pinterest Udostępnij na LinkedIn Wyślij znajomemu