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Autor
Szarycz Gregory G. (University of Wroclaw)
Tytuł
A Post-Structural Critique of the Language of 'Experience' in Tourism Research
Poststrukturalistyczna krytyka "doświadczenia" w badaniach nad turystyką
Źródło
Folia Turistica / Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego im. B. Czecha w Krakowie, 2015, nr 37, s. 31-51, bibliogr. 115 poz.
Tytuł własny numeru
Anthropology of tourism
Słowa kluczowe
Turystyka, Językoznawstwo, Psychologia konsumenta, Psychologia postrzegania
Tourism, Linguistics, Consumer psychology, Psychology of perception
Uwagi
summ., streszcz.
Abstrakt
Cel. Niniejszy referat jest analizą doświadczenia, a mówiąc ściślej - podejmuje się analizy słowa "doświadczenie" i jego użycia w badaniach nad turystyką. Epistemologiczne rozważania nad naturą doświadczenia leżą u podstaw wielu kwestii kluczowych dla badań nad turystyką oraz dla dziedzin pokrewnych.
Metoda. Referat dzieli się na dwie połączone ze sobą części. W części pierwszej analizie poddany zostaje sposób, w jaki doświadczenie używane jest jako dowód w jakościowych badaniach nad turystyką. Część druga przybliża perspektywy teoretyczne przemawiające za ww. praktyką. Uwagi końcowe przedstawiają zalety analizy "języka doświadczenia" z punktu widzenia poststrukturalizmu.
Wyniki. Wysunięte zostaje twierdzenie, iż postrukturalistyczne spojrzenie na mówienie o doświadczeniu w kontekście badań naukowych otwiera nowe możliwości analizy związku pomiędzy sposobem prowadzenia badań nad turystyką a kulturalnym czy politycznym zaangażowaniem. Poststrukturalne podejście do tworzenia oraz analizy narracji opartych na doświadczeniu (tj. narracji jako konkretnej praktyki społecznej) zachowuje siłę badań empirycznych, wraz z innymi, rzadziej rozważanymi kwestiami zaangażowania ontologicznego, postrzegania innych osób lub siebie, sposobów rozumienia metodologii badań nad turystyką oraz narracji.
Ograniczenia badań i wnioskowania. Jako że doświadczenie i jego rozumienie jest tak różne dla różnych kultur czy społeczności językowych, przydatnym dla przyszłych dyskusji wydaje się, aby pod uwagę brane były perspektywy, czy też "badania nad doświadczeniem" stworzone w innych językach. Co więcej, niniejsza praca krytyczna miałaby zastosowanie w niemal wszystkich jakościowych badaniach nad turystyką (a niekoniecznie w badaniach nad doświadczeniem turystycznym).
Implikacje praktyczne. Niniejsza praca krytyczna dotycząca jakościowych badań nad turystyką jest bardzo aktualna, podobnie jak propozycja rozpatrywania doświadczenia (jak również autentyczności lub turystyki jako wolności, itp.) jako narracji, opowiadania (doświadczenie jako zjawisko językowe); wszystko to wydaje się być użyteczne dla przyszłych badań.
Oryginalność pracy. Pomimo faktu, iż badania nad gościnnością, wypoczynkiem i turystyką opisują subiektywne, afektywne oraz przede wszystkim empiryczne perspektywy w tych gałęziach przemysłu [Otto i Ritchie 1996] to tak naprawdę nie zajmują się one naturą samego doświadczenia. Koncentrując się na przydawaniu doświadczeniu określeń w rodzaju "wysokiej jakości", "uskrzydlające", "autentyczne", "przeżyte" itp. zaniedbały znaczenie tego rzeczownika, jego denotację. Niniejszy artykuł ma za zadanie przyciągnąć uwagę do kwestii znaczenia doświadczenia dla badań nad turystyką.
Rodzaj pracy. Artykuł teoretyczny. (abstrakt oryginalny)

Purpose. This paper is an analysis of experience. More specifically, it is an analysis of the word 'experience' and how it is used in tourism research. Epistemological questions about the nature of experience underlie many of the issues fundamental to research in tourism and related fields.
Method. The analysis has two over-lapping sections. The first looks at how experience is used as evidence in qualitative tourism research. The second explicates the theoretical perspectives underpinning its use as evidence. Concluding remarks argue the advantages of using a poststructuralist view of the language of experience.
Findings. It is argued that a poststructuralist understanding of the language of experience in research opens up additional ways to analyse the relationship between the conduct of tourism research and certain cultural/political commitments. Poststructural approaches to the production and analysis of experiential narratives as a particular social practice maintain the strengths of experiential research alongside other, less frequently addressed, ontological commitments, visions of the person/self, understandings of research methodology and narratives of tourism.
Research and conclusions limitations. Notably, as experience and the understanding of it is so indigenous to cultural settings and/or language communities, it might be useful for future discussion to engage perspectives or "experience research" conducted in different languages. Further, this critique and reflection would apply to almost all qualitative tourism studies (and not necessarily tourism experience research).
Practical implications. This reflection and critique on qualitative tourism studies is timely, as is the proposition of seeing experience (and indeed authenticity, or tourism as freedom, etc.) as a way of talking (experience as linguistic). Both seem to have a useful perspective for future research.
Originality. Although a stream of research in hospitality, leisure and tourism has explored the subjective, affective, and especially, the experiential perspectives in these industries [Otto and Ritchie, 1996], it has not really dealt with the meaning of experience itself. It has concentrated on adding adjectives such as 'quality', 'flow', 'authentic' 'lived', etc. to experience but has largely neglected the meaning - or, more technically, the signifying work - of the noun. This article hopes to draw attention to the question of the meaning of experience in tourism research.
Type of paper. Theoretical article. (original abstract)
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Bibliografia
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