Cracow University of Economics   |   Go to BazEkon database   |   Main Library of the Cracow University of Economics
wersja polska | english version

Information: 2017.09.24; 208652 documents in BazEkon database; 2571489 citations; 1154457 parsed citations.


- Bibliometrics = application of statistics in literature research. In particular, bibliometrics deals with the statistical analysis of the literature registered in bibliographic databases. [more »]

The origins of bibliometrics can be traced back to 1923 when E.W. Hulme used the term "statistical bibliography" as the combination of "statistics" (a method of analysis) and "bibliography" (the subject of analysis). Because of the possible confusing association with the bibliography of publications in the field of statistics, revision of this name was done by A. Pritchard [1969], who also extended the methods used in bibliometrics to include mathematical methods and gave up direct links with the bibliography (the application of mathematics and statistical methods to books and other media of communication). Polish definition of the term respects this, specifying "bibliometrics" as "the quantitative analysis and the study of development trends in literature using statistical methods and based on bibliographies and statistics of publications". [Source: Słownik terminologiczny informacji naukowej, 1979].

The most simple definition of bibliometrics, which was introduced 90 years ago by Hulme as the use of statistics in the bibliography, needs a reminder that each component is now presenting new quality, and that the common factor in their development is computer technology (greater computational capabilities and the ability to mine data, as well as bibliographies in the form of databases recording data and literature citations).

The information section of this page defines Citations in BazEkon as a bibliometric software tool similar to Publish or Perish. Please note that the similarity is further increased by the means of access: both tools are in the Internet free of charge. Citations in BazEkon belongs to the class of bibliometric software tools designed to calculate the bibliometric indicators for the resources of a specific bibliographic databases. In particular, Citations in BazEkon presents indicators of impact for authors and journals, calculated using the bibliogrpahical annotations of articles recorded in BazEkon database.

The results are presented in the same way in both profiles and give the following statistics:

Statystyki te mogą być obliczone z uwzględnieniem lub z pominięciem autocytowań.

Methodological for the basic statistics:

The number of citations

- the sum of all citations of one author or the articles from one journal that can be found in BazEkon database.

In contrast to the author’s basic profile in Scopus or WoS databases, the Citations in BazEkon software makes it possible to include the number of citations of monographs and monograph parts as we see in the example below (the option to include only journals articles was not checked).

The default settings of Citations in BazEkon are to generate the highest number of citations for the author, including self-citations (authors often refer to their earlier works on the issues mentioned in the text) and displaying citations of all of the author’s works, including citations of monographs and their fragments. However, it must be remembered that any comparison with the indicators calculated by Scopus or WoS databases can be only carried out after checking the ‘only journals articles’ option.

The number of cited publications (for an author or a journal)

Number of publications cited is an important addition to the number of citations the author received. It’s correlated with the author’s productivity (measured by the number of published works), which was proven by N. Phelan [1999], however, noting that the correlation is not strong and the measures are not substitutes.

The Hirsch index (the h-index) - times the largest number of h papers published, each of which has been cited in other papers at least h times

[more »]

The index was suggested by Jorge E. Hirsch in 2005. The index is based on the set of the scientist’s most cited papers and the number of citations that they have received in other publications. To determine the h-index, the number of cites of the publications of a particular researcher are represented in decreasing order. The h-index of the researcher corresponds to the point where the number of citations crosses the publication order. This index has become so popular among scientists that databases such as WoS, Scopus and Google Scholar introduced its calculation to their resources. But it should be made clear that the h-index is different in each of them because the resources in those databases are different: the selection of indexed journals, their number and time range, as well as a variety of approaches to self-citations.

Web of Science (WoS)

Platform for multiple databases, the oldest of which (Science Citation Index) was released in 1963.

The current number of indexed journals is 17 592 titles (as on 28 January 2013), the list can be accessed using the following link .

The database indexes conference materials (one component of WoS is Conference Proceedings Citation Index) and book series.

The Hirsch index is calculated on this basis without eliminating self-citations, but only for the items registered in the database and only in the resources included in the subscription. National license, which allows higher education institutions in Poland to have access to this database, provides the full access to the WoS archive.


This database was created in 2004.

The current number of indexed journals is 21 000 titles (as on 28 January 2013), the list can be accessed using the following link

It also indexes the conference papers and book series.

The Hirsch index is calculated with and without the elimination of self-citations. In the calculations only articles published after 1995 and registered in the database are included. Therefore, if the authors finds in their database profiles articles published earlier, and it is cited, this citation shall be omitted in calculating the Hirsch index.

Google Scholar

Google Scholar is a resource hard to compare with bibliographic databases and difficult to define. Generally, it is a collection of scientific resources available on the Internet.

The Hirsch index is calculated by Publish or Perish software without eliminating self-citations.

The Hirsch index applied to authors quickly drew the attention of the researchers. Scientometrics journal devoted an issue to it in 2006. Almost immediately after launch it is was described in the Polish journal “Academic Forum” [Pilc A., (2005) Na tropach jakości w nauce. "Forum Akademickie", No.12]. The weaknesses of this software are often pointed out: senior scientists seems to have a preference and the information about works with a very high impact factor is lost (the index is dominated by an ordinal number; for example, it loses its significance when the first work is the most cited work). This was an impulse to further determine the time period for index calculation and the creation of additional indicators supporting the h-index (such as a-index, defined as the average number of citations received by the works which were used to calculate the h-index) or its variations (the Egge index, the g-index). However these indexes are not as common in the impact analyses of authors as the h-index.

For example, a scientist for whom h = 12, is a person whose 12 publications were cited not less than 12 times, and the thirteenth publication of this author does not have thirteen citations.

The results display screen of Citations in BazEkon arranges the citations in descending order by default, which almost immediately makes the size of the Hirsch index visible.